Bangladesh, a country in South Asian countries, which is officially known as the actual People’s Republic of Bangladesh. Actually, it covers its jurisdictional land borders with Myanmar (Burma) and India. The actual countries those located close to Bangladesh are Nepal, Bhutan, and China. It is the 8th most densely populated nation in the world. The capital and biggest city of Bangladesh is Dhaka, followed by the country’s greatest port Chittagong.
Bangladesh is actually predominately rich fertile toned land. Most parts of it really are less than 12 m (39. 4 ft) above ocean level, and it is estimated which about 10% of the land would be flooded when the sea level was to increase by 1 m (3. 28 ft). 17% of the country is covered by jungles and 12% is coated with hill systems. Moreover, the place’s haor wetlands are associated with significance to global environmental science.
Bangladesh is found in the Indomalaya Eco area. Its ecology includes a lengthy sea coastline, numerous rivers and tributaries, lakes, estuarine habitat, evergreen forests, semi classic forests, hill forests, damp deciduous forests, freshwater swamp forests and flat property with tall grass. The particular Bangladesh Plain is famous for it is fertile alluvial soil that supports extensive cultivation. The nation is dominated by luxurious vegetation, with villages frequently buried in groves regarding mango, jack fruit, bamboo, betel nut, and coconut and day palm.
The country has as much as 6000 species of plant life, such as 5000 flowering plants. Drinking water bodies and wetland techniques provide a habitat for many marine plants. Water lilies, as well as lotuses, grow vividly throughout the monsoon season. The country offers 50 wildlife sanctuaries.
Bangladesh is home too much of the Sundarbans, the particular world’s largest mangrove woodland, covering an area of six, 000 km2 in the south west littoral region. It is split up into three protected sanctuaries-the Southern, East and West areas. The forest is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Saint. Martin’s Island is the just coral reef in the country.
Divisions are subdivided into districts (Zila). There are sixty-four districts in Bangladesh, every district additionally divided into Upazila (sub districts) or thana. the area among every police station, apart from those inside metropolitan areas, is divided into a number of unions, with each unions consisting of multiple villages. Within the metropolitan areas, police stations tend to be divided into wards, which are additionally divided into mahallas.
You will find no elected officials at the divisional or district level, and the administration is composed just of government officials. Direct elections are held in each union (or ward) for a chairperson and a number of members. Within 1997, a parliamentary take action was passed to have three seats (out associated with 12) in every union with regard to female members.
First of all, Dhaka Division is including the capital and largest city of Bangladesh. It has an area of 31,051 square kilometers, and had a population over 47,424,418 according to the census of 2011. It is located in the central part of Bangladesh. Almost every division is covering this division.
Khulna Division (Bengali: খুলনা বিভাগ) is one of the eight divisions of Bangladesh and is in the south-west of the country. It had an area of 22,285 km2 and a population of 15,563,000 at the 2011 Census (preliminary returns). Its headquarters is Khulna city in Khulna District.
Actually, Rajshahi is a first level administrative division. Its area is 18,174.4 square kilometers and population are about 14,484,858 according to the census of 2011. It includes 8 districts, 70 Upazilas and 1,092 Unions. This division has a special characteristic of its cheap labor force.
Rangpur Division was formed as Bangladesh’s 7th division on 25th January, 2010. Before recognizing as a division, it was a districts of the Rajshahi Division. Since the Rangpur Division is including 8 districts, therefore it has 58 Uazilas under these eight districts.
Greater Chittagong, officially known as Chittagong Division is one of the largest administrative division of Bangladesh in accordance with its geographical location. It has an area of 33,771.18 square kilometers and population of 28,423,019 according to the census of 2011. This division including the Chittagong Hill Tracts, mainland Chittagong and neighboring districts.
Sylhet Division, which is known as Greater Sylhet, named after the main city called Sylhet. Its border is covered by the Assam, Meghalaya and Tripura state of India. It is considered as one of the most picturesque region and archaeologically rich region in South Asia.
Barisal Division is located in the south-central part of Bangladesh. It is covered by the Bay of Bengal on the south, Dhaka division on the north, Khulna division on the west and Chittagong division on the east. The administrative capital of Barisal Division, Barisal city is lies beside the river delta of Ganges (Padma).
Bangladesh features a low literacy rate, predicted at 66. 5% to get males and 63. 1% for females in 2014. The educational system in Bangladesh is three-tiered and seriously subsidized. The government operates numerous schools in the primary, supplementary, and higher secondary level. It subsidizes the financing of many private schools. Within the tertiary education sector, the federal government funds more than 15 state universities through the University Grants Commission (UGC).
Cricket is one of the most popular sports within Bangladesh, followed by football. The actual Bangladesh national cricket team under the Bangladesh Cricket Board took part in their first Cricket World Cup in 1999, and also the following year was given elite Test cricket position. They have however struggled, documenting only ten Test match up victories: eight against Zimbabwe (five in 2005 as well as three in 2014), as well as the other two in a 2-0 series victory over the West Indies (in 2009).
They have been more successful in One Day International cricket (ODI). Inside July 2010, they achieved their first-ever win over England. Later in 2010, they defeat New Zealand, also initially. In late 2012, they received a five-match home ODI series 3-2 against the full-strength West Indies National team. In 2011, Bangladesh effectively co-hosted the ICC Cricket World Cup 2011 along with India and Sri Lanka. During 2012, the country arranged the Asia Cup. They beat India and Sri Lanka but failed to maintain the reputation in the final game against Pakistan.
However, it had been the first time Bangladesh had superior to the final of any kind of top-class international cricket competition. They participated in the year 2010 Asian Games in Guangzhou, defeating Afghanistan to claim their own Gold Medal in the first-ever cricket tournament held in the actual Asian Games. Bangladeshi Cricket player Shakib Al Hasan is no. 1 on the ICC’s all-rounder rankings in all three types of the cricket.
Straddling the Tropic of Malignancy, Bangladesh’s climate is exotic with a mild winter through October to March, along with a hot, humid summer coming from March to June. The nation has never recorded an air flow temperature below 0 °C (32 °F), with a record of low 1.1 °C (34. 0 °F) within the north west city of Dinajpur on 3 February 1905. A warm and damp monsoon season lasts via June to October and also supplies most of the country’s rainwater.
Natural calamities, such as massive floods, tropical cyclones, tornadoes, along with tidal bores occur nearly every year, combined with the effects of deforestation, soil degradation, and erosion. The cyclones of 70 and 1991 were especially devastating, the latter eliminating some 140,000 individuals.
The Constitution regarding Bangladesh establishes a unitary, Westminster-style parliamentary republic together with universal suffrage. A member involving parliament supported by a parliamentary majority becomes the Prime Minister of Bangladesh-usually this is the seat of the largest party. The best minister is the head of presidency and head of the cupboard. Bangladesh is governed by a 350-member parliament, known as the particular Jatiyo Sangshad. 300 people are elected to the Jatiyo Sangshad on a first beyond the post basis; while fifty seats are reserved for woman nominees of political events.
Parliamentary elections are planned every five years; but elections have often already been delayed due to the political downturn, emergency rule or martial law. The President connected with Bangladesh is the head associated with the state. Between 1975 in addition to 1990, the presidency loved executive powers, but it continues to be reduced to a large etiquette role by the Twelfth Modification to the Constitution.
The particular Bangladesh Armed Forces have passed down the institutional framework from the British military and the Uk Indian Army. It was created in 1971 by the military regiments of East Pakistan. Since 2012, the strength of the military was around 300,000 including reservists, the air force (22, 000), and navy (24, 000). In addition to conventional defense roles, the army has been called upon to provide assistance to civil authorities regarding disaster relief and inner security during periods regarding political unrest. For many years, Bangladesh has consistently been typically the world’s largest contributor in order to UN peacekeeping forces. Throughout February 2015, Bangladesh created major deployments to Côte d’Ivoire, Cyprus, Darfur, often the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Golan Heights, Haiti, Lebanon, Liberia, and Southern Sudan.
Bangladesh is really a developing country, with a market-based mixed economy and is outlined as one of the Next Eleven growing markets. The per household income of Bangladesh had been US$1,190 in 2014, with a GDP of US$209 billion. In South Asian countries, Bangladesh has the third-largest economic climate after those of India and Pakistan, and it has the second highest foreign exchange supplies after India. As a result, the Bangladeshi diaspora contributed US$15.31 billion in remittances inside 2015
Bangladesh is actually notable for its fertile property, including the Ganges delta, the actual Sylhet Division, and the Chittagong Hill Tracts. Agriculture could also be the only largest manufacturing field of the economy since it includes concerning 18.6% (data released in Nov 2010) within the country’s gross domestic product and utilizes around forty-fifths of the entire workforce. The performance of the sector has an amazing result on major macroeconomic objectives like employment generation, impoverishment relief, human resources development and meals security. A plurality involving Bangladeshis earn their residing from agriculture. The country rates among the top producers connected with rice (4th), potatoes (7th), tropical fruits (6th), jute (2nd), and farmed seafood (5th).
Bangladesh’s textile sheets and Ready Made Garments business are the country’s largest production sector, accounting for US$25 billion in exports throughout 2014. Leather goods producing, particularly in footwear, will be the second largest export-oriented commercial sector. The pharmaceutical market meets 97% of household demand and exports to be able to up to 52 countries. Shipbuilding in Bangladesh has observed rapid growth with export products to Europe.
Generally, the service sector accounts for 51% of GDP. Bangladesh has a high ranking with Pakistan in getting the second largest banking industry in South Asia. Often the Dhaka Stock Exchange and the Chittagong Stock Exchange are the twin monetary markets of the country. The actual telecoms industry in Bangladesh is one of the fastest growing marketplaces in the world, with 114 million cell phone subscribers in December 2013. The main telecom companies are Grameenphone, Banglalink, Robi, and BTTB. Tourism in Bangladesh continues to be developing, with the beach holiday resort town of Cox’s Mercado being the center of the industry. The particular Sylhet region, home for you to Bangladesh’s tea country, additionally receives a large number of visitors. Bangladesh has three UNESCO World Heritage Sites – the particular Mosque City, the Buddhist Vihara, and the Sundarbans — and five tentative detailed sites.
Science and technologies
The Bangladesh Council associated with Scientific and Industrial Investigation was founded in 1973, as well as traces its roots towards the East Pakistan Regional Labs established in Dhaka (1955), Rajshahi (1965) and Chittagong (1967).
Generally, Bangladesh’s space company, SPARRSO, was founded in 1983 with assistance from the United States. Bangladesh plans to launch typically the Bangabandhu-1 communications satellite within 2018. The Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission operates any TRIGA research reactor in its atomic energy facility within Savar.
Bangladesh has a large number of trained IT professional. But as most companies have not become large enough plus the failure of business owners to comprehend the benefits of technology, the local with regard to these highly skilled professionals have been low. As a result, IT industry in Bangladesh offers turned its focus to help to export software and IT solutions. Currently, the country is rated the 26th global IT outsourcing destination. The primary cause is that Bangladeshi IT businesses provide high-quality services at a much lower cost than their particular competitors.
It is currently approximated that the volume of IT outsourcing techniques is doubling every year inside Bangladesh. And several local organizations have been successful in the worldwide enterprise software market. Probably, the Bangladeshi government is conceptualizing IT as the second largest foreign trade sector after garments inside the coming years.
Estimations of the Bangladeshi population differ but most recent data recommend 162 to 168 thousand people (2015). However, often the 2011 census estimated 142.3 million, much less compared to recent (2007-2010) estimates regarding Bangladesh’s population ranging from one hundred fifty to 170 million. Therefore, Bangladesh is thus the eighth most populous nation on the planet. In 1951, the population has been only 44 million. Additionally, it is the most densely populated big country in the world, and it rates high 11th in population thickness when very small countries and also city-states are included.
Basically, Bengalis constitute 98% on the population. Among Bengalis, Bengali Muslims are the predominant vast majority, followed by Bengali Hindus, Bengali Christians, and Bengali Buddhists.
Generally, the Adivasi populace includes the Santal, Chakma, Marma, Bawm, Tanchangya, Kuki, Jaintia, Khiang, Munda, Khumi, Chak, Murang, Mru, Lushei, Bishnupriya Manipuri, Tripuri, Khasi, Garo, and Oraon tribes. The Chittagong Hill Areas region suffered unrest along with an insurgency from 75 to 1997 due to a motion by indigenous people intended for autonomy. Although a peacefulness accord was signed throughout 1997, the region remains greatly militarized.
Generally, Bangladesh houses a significant Ismaili community. Additionally, it hosts many Urdu-speaking immigrants who migrated after the rupture of India. Stranded Pakistanis were given citizenship by the best court in 2008.
There are an estimated 300, 000 Rohingya refugees from Myanmar, who live in refugee encampments in Cox’s Bazar Region in southeastern Bangladesh. Often the southeastern region has received influxes of Rohingya refugees due to Burmese military crackdowns in the late 70s, 1991, 2012 and 2016.
More than 98% involving Bangladeshis (Bengalis) speak in Bengali as their native language. Around the country, regional languages or perhaps dialects are spoken, as well as Chittagonian, Sylheti, and Rangpuri. Pakistani Biharis, stranded as a result of 1971 and living in various camps in Bangladesh, talk Urdu. Similarly, Rohingya refugees from Myanmar living in different camps in Bangladesh for more than 30 years speaks Rohingya. There are also a number of indigenous minority languages.
Bangla is the sole official dialect, but English is sometimes utilized secondarily for official reasons. Especially in the judiciary and lawful system. Historically, laws had been written in English in addition to were not translated into Bangla until 1987. Bangladesh’s metabolism and all laws now can be found in both English and Bangla. English is also used as a second language among the middle as well as upper classes and is also popular in higher education.
Islamic is the largest religion with Bangladesh, adhered to by about 86. 6% of the population. The is home to most Bengali Muslims, the second largest ethnic team in the Muslim world. Nearly all Bangladeshi Muslims are Sunni, followed by the Shia and also Ahmadiya. Roughly 4% tend to be non-denominational Muslims. Bangladesh has got the fourth-largest Muslim population on earth and is the third-largest Muslim-majority country after Indonesia along with Pakistan.